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A cohort study found a high risk of end-stage kidney disease associated with acromegaly.

Acromegaly is a chronic systemic disease caused by excess levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 and is associated with numerous complications. Significantly, there is a lack of longitudinal data on kidney complications in patients with acromegaly. As such, we investigated the risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) (stage 5D, 5T) in these patients with nationwide data obtained from the National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service in Republic of Korea. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 2.187 patients with acromegaly and 10,935 age- and sex-matched (1:5) control subjects without acromegaly over a mean follow-up period of 6.51 years. The study outcomes were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, household income, residential area, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, urolithiasis, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. The incidence (per 1,000 person-years) ESKD was 2.00 among patients with acromegaly but only 0.46 among controls, (hazard ratio 4.35 (95% confidence interval 2.63-7.20)) implicating a significantly higher risk. After adjustment for covariates, the risk of ESKD (2.36 (1.36-4.12)) was still significantly higher in patients with acromegaly than that in controls. Among the covariates, diabetes and hypertension were significant facilitators between acromegaly and ESKD in mediation analysis. Pituitary surgery and somatostatin analogues did not significantly change these associations. Thus, acromegaly may be linked with a higher risk for ESKD both independently and through mediators such as diabetes and hypertension.

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