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Odontogenic Carcinosarcoma: Clinicopathologic and Molecular Features of Three Cases, a Literature Review and Nomenclature Proposal.

BACKGROUND: Odontogenic carcinosarcoma (OCS) is a rare odontogenic malignancy with limited characterization and unexplored molecular features. We report clinicopathologic and molecular findings in 3 additional OCS and review the literature.

METHODS: 3 OCS (5.1%) were identified among 59 malignant odontogenic tumors (in our archives from 1992 to 2022). Clinical, radiologic, histopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular findings were reviewed. Data from prior case reports and systematic or non-systematic reviews were extracted for analysis.

RESULTS: Three mandibular OCS (age range: 66 to 72 years; 1 male, 2 females) were identified. Case 1 had novel clear-cell morphology, multiple recurrences, and a lethal outcome 28 months after resection. EWSR1 rearrangements were negative, but the tumor showed focal nuclear β-catenin and strong LEF-1 immunoreactivity. Case 2 demonstrated ameloblastic and sclerosing features and encased the inferior alveolar nerve; the patient was disease-free 22 months after resection with adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. LEF-1 was again strongly positive, and next-generation sequencing demonstrated 9p region-(CDKN2A, CDKN2B) copy number loss, and 12q region-(MDM2, CDK4) copy number gain. Case 3 showed clear-cell and markedly sclerosing features; no follow-up information was available. Literature review along with the current cases yielded 20 cases. OCS showed a male predilection (1.5:1), mandibular predominance (80%, typically posterior), and a bimodal age distribution (modes: 27.7 years, 62.7 years). OCS presented as masses (100%), often with pain (55%), and paresthesia (45%). Tumors were typically radiolucent (88.9%), with bone destruction (61.1%), and/or tooth effacement (27.8%). Preoperative biopsy was sensitive for malignancy (85.7%). At least 45% show evidence for a precursor lesion. 3-year DSS and DFS were 58% and 35%, respectively. Regional and distant (usually lung) metastatic rates were 25% and 31.3%, respectively. Increased mitotic rates and presence of tumor necrosis trended toward worse DSS and DFS.

CONCLUSION: OCS is a rare but aggressive malignancy, often arising from precursor tumors and may represent a terminal phenotype rather than a distinct entity. We describe novel clear-cell and sclerosing morphologies. Wnt pathway alterations appear important. Mitotic rates and necrosis may be adverse prognosticators. In keeping with nomenclature trends in other sites, OCS may be more appropriately designated as "biphasic sarcomatoid odontogenic carcinomas."

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