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Cannabis and Pregnancy: A Review.

IMPORTANCE: Prenatal cannabis use is rising and is a major public health issue. Cannabis use in pregnancy and during lactation has been associated with increased maternal and offspring morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE: This review aims to summarize the existing literature and current recommendations for cannabis use during pregnancy or lactation.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar literature search using the following terms was performed to gather relevant data: "cannabis," "cannabinoid," "delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol," "THC," "cannabidiol," "fetal outcomes," "perinatal outcomes," "pregnancy," and "lactation."

RESULTS: Available studies on cannabis use in pregnancy and during lactation were reviewed and support an association with increased risk of preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, low birth weight, and small-for-gestational-age infants.

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: There is a critical need for research on the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy and during lactation. This is a necessary first step before furthering patient education, developing interventions, and targeting antenatal surveillance to ameliorate the adverse impacts on maternal and fetal health.

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