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Dynamic functional connectivity in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A review of the evidence and associations with psychopathological features.

Alterations of functional network connectivity have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Recent studies also suggest that the temporal dynamics of functional connectivity (dFC) can be altered in these disorders. Here, we summarized the existing literature on dFC in SCZ and BD, and their association with psychopathological and cognitive features. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for studies investigating dFC in SCZ and BD and identified 77 studies. Our findings support a general model of dysconnectivity of dFC in SCZ, whereas a heterogeneous picture arose in BD. Although dFC alterations are more severe and widespread in SCZ compared to BD, dysfunctions of a triple network system underlying goal-directed behavior and sensory-motor networks were present in both disorders. Furthermore, in SCZ, positive and negative symptoms were associated with abnormal dFC. Implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disorders, the role of neurotransmitters, and treatments on dFC are discussed. The lack of standards for dFC metrics, replication studies, and the use of small samples represent major limitations for the field.

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