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Association between intraoperative anatomical variation and histopathological parameters in cases of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children: A cross-sectional study.

INTRODUCTION: The intraoperative anatomical findings (IOAF) of all ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) cases are not identical. Moreover, there is also controversy in the literature regarding histopathological (HP) findings in cases of UPJO. In the present study, we evaluated different IOAF and assessed their association with specific HP parameters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study set-up, which was carried out in a tertiary care centre. Children with UPJO who underwent surgery between 2017 and 2020 were enrolled. The following IOAF were noted: Type of pelvis (extrarenal or intrarenal), insertion of the ureter (high or normal), presence of lower pole crossing vessel (CV), negotiation of UPJ segment with double J stent (3 Fr) and length of internal narrowing (LIN) at UPJ. The resected segment of UPJ was assessed at three levels (pelvis, UPJ and ureter) for various HP parameters including fibrosis, oedema, inflammation and smooth muscle hypertrophy (SMH).

RESULTS: Thirty-nine children were included in the study with a mean age of 31 months. The summary statistics of IOAF were intrarenal pelvis in 5 cases, high insertion of the ureter (HIU) in 9, CV in 6, negotiable UPJ in 23, and 16 cases showed LIN >1 cm. All cases showed SMH at the pelvis region and SMH with fibrosis at the UPJ region. At the pelvis region, there was an association between (1) HIU with oedema and chronic inflammation (CIF), (2) CV with CIF and (3) LIN with CIF and SMH. At the UPJ region, there was an association between (1) CV and negotiable UPJ with less fibrosis and (2) LIN with SMH. At the ureteric end, CV showed an association with less fibrosis and more CIF.

CONCLUSION: All UPJO cases have some common HP findings. Although, some particular IOAF, i.e., presence of CV, negotiable UPJ, HIU and LIN showed association with specific HP parameters.

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