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Socioeconomic Characteristics, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Health Conditions Among Males of Reproductive Age With and Without Disabilities, NHANES 2013-2018.

Health status during the reproductive years influences fecundity, fertility, and the future health of males and their offspring. There remains a dearth of literature examining men's preconception health, especially among high-risk populations, such as those with disabilities. The objective of this study was to examine indicators of preconception health, including chronic medical conditions, lifestyle behaviors, and health care utilization, among males of reproductive age with and without disabilities in the United States. Data were from 3,702 males of reproductive age (18-44 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2018. Approximately 14% of males reported having at least one disability related to vision, hearing, cognition, mobility, self-care, or independent living. Among all men, suboptimal preconception health indicators were prevalent including poor or fair self-rated health; low education and household income status; lack of health insurance and no recent utilization of health care and dental care; cigarette smoking; frequent alcohol consumption and binge drinking; marijuana and illegal drug use; obesity; low fruit and vegetable intake and no multi-vitamin use; low physical activity; short sleep durations; depressive symptoms; and hypertension and asthma. Compared to males with no disabilities, males with any disabilities were more likely to have suboptimal preconception health indicators. Strategies to promote and improve sexual health, preconception care, and family planning services among all men are needed. For males with disabilities, specifically, further investigation of their specific health needs related to sex, reproduction, family planning, and fatherhood, as well as interactions with health care providers, is required.

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