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Massive Right Chylothorax Secondary to a Severe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Flare With Secondary Evans Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review.

This case report describes a 23-year-old male patient who presented with right chylothorax as the initial manifestation of a severe flare of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and secondary Evans syndrome. Chylothorax and chylous ascites are rare features of SLE that can occur due to the accumulation of triglyceride-rich fluid in serous cavities. However, they have never been reported as the initial manifestation of a lupus flare. Evans syndrome is a rare disease characterized by autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia, which can be secondary to SLE. The concomitant occurrence of both chylothorax and Evans syndrome in the setting of systemic lupus erythematosus has never been described, and the exact causative mechanisms of both entities are yet to be fully understood. In this report, we discuss our approach to this challenging case to broaden the understanding of the clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering rare features of systemic lupus erythematosus and secondary diseases when evaluating patients with the disease.

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