CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL
JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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The Treatment of Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPD) is characterized by persistent or recurrent experiences of detachment from oneself and surroundings, as well as a sense of unreality. Considering the inadequacy of current research on treatment, we performed a systematic review of the available pharmacotherapies, neuromodulations, and psychotherapies for DPD. The systematic review protocol was based on PRISMA 2020 guidelines and pre-registered. The PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from inception to June 2021. All treatments for DPD and all study types, including controlled and observational studies as well as case reports, were assessed. Of the identified 17,540 studies, 41 studies (four randomized controlled trials, one non-randomized controlled trial, 10 case series, and 26 case reports) involving 300 participants met the eligibility criteria. We identified 30 methods that have been applied independently or in combination to treat DPD since 1955. The quality of these studies was considered. The relationship between individual differences, such as symptoms, comorbidities, history, and duration since onset, and treatment effects was explored. The results suggest that a series of treatments, such as pharmacotherapies, neuromodulation, and psychotherapies, could be considered in combination. However, the quality and quantity of studies were generally low considering the high prevalence of DPD. The review concludes with suggestions for future research and an urgent call for more high-quality research.

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