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Serum HSF1 is upregulated in endometriosis patients and serves as a potential diagnostic biomarker.

Endometriosis (EMS) is a prevalent gynecological condition lacking reliable diagnostic biomarkers. This prospective study aimed to analyze the potential of serum heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) as a diagnostic marker for EMS. Clinical features of 92 EMS patients and 52 controls were recorded, revealing significant differences in dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, nulliparity, and CA125 levels. Serum HSF1 was upregulated in EMS patients, with higher levels in American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) III/IV than ASRM I/II. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated good diagnostic function for serum HSF1 (AUC: 0.857, sensitivity: 91.30%, specificity: 63.46%). Serum HSF1, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and nulliparity were independent risk factors for EMS, while dysmenorrhea and serum HSF1 were independent risk factors for EMS severity. Additionally, the GSE25628 dataset was downloaded from the GEO database for differential analysis of gene expression. The HSF1 downstream target genes PTGES3, HSP90AA1, and HSPB1 showed significant differential expression in EMS, suggesting their involvement in the regulatory mechanism of HSF1 in EMS.

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