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Antitumoral photoinduced effects of crude extract, fractions, and naphthoquinones from Sinningia magnifica (Otto & A. Dietr.) Wiehler (Gesneriaceae) in a bioguided study.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for various purposes, including as an antitumor resource in a noninvasive therapy with minimal side effects. Sinningia magnifica (Otto & A. Dietr.) Wiehler is a rupicolous plant found in rock crevices in Brazilian tropical forests. Initial studies indicate the presence of phenolic glycosides and anthraquinones in species of the genus Sinningia (Generiaceae family). It is known that anthraquinones are natural photosensitizers with potential PDT applications. This led us to investigate the potential compounds of S. magnifica for use as a natural photosensitizer against the melanoma (SK-MEL-103) and the prostate cancer (PC-3) cell lines in a bioguided study. Our results showed that singlet oxygen production by the 1,3-DPBF photodegradation assay greatly increased in the presence of crude extract and fractions. The biological activity evaluation showed photodynamic action against melanoma cell line SK-MEL-103 and prostate cell line PC-3. These results suggest the presence of potential photosensitizing substances, as demonstrated in this in vitro antitumor PDT study by the naphthoquinones Dunniol and 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-α-dunnione for the first time. Naphthoquinones, anthraquinones and phenolic compounds were identified in the crude extract by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis, motivating us to continue with the bioguided phytochemical study aiming to discover more photochemically bioactive substances in Gesneriaceae plants.

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