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In-hospital stroke and mortality trends after left ventricular assist device implantation in the United States from 2017 to 2019.

BACKGROUND: The newer Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD), the HeartMate 3 (HM3), was initially approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2017. We aimed to describe the temporal trends of in-hospital stroke and mortality among patients who underwent LVAD placement between 2017 and 2019.

METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample was queried from 2017 to 2019 to identify all adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who underwent LVAD implantation using the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes. The Cochran-Armitage test was conducted to assess the linear trend of in-hospital stroke and mortality. In addition, multivariable regression analysis was conducted to assess the association of LVAD placement with in-hospital stroke and death.

RESULTS: A total of 5,087,280 patients met the selection criteria. Of those, 11,750 (0.2%) underwent LVAD implantation. There was a downtrend in in-hospital mortality per year (trend: -1.8%, p  = 0.03), but not in the trend of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke per year. LVAD placement was associated with greater odds of stroke of any type (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.68-2.29, p  < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.61, p  < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a significant downtrend in the in-hospital mortality rates among patients with LVAD without substantial changes in stroke rate trends over the study timeframe. As stroke rates remained steady, we hypothesize that improved management along with better control of blood pressure, could have played an important role in survival benefit over the study time frame.

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