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Roles of Different β-Defensins in the Human Reproductive System: A Review Study.

Human β-defensins (hBDs) are cationic peptides with an amphipathic spatial shape and a high cysteine content. The members of this peptide family have been found in the human body with various functions, including the human reproductive system. Of among β-defensins in the human body, β-defensin 1, β-defensin 2, and β-defensin 126 are known in the human reproductive system. Human β-defensin 1 interacts with chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) in the male reproductive system to prevent bacterial infections. This peptide has a positive function in antitumor immunity by recruiting dendritic cells and memory T cells in prostate cancer. It is necessary for fertilization via facilitating capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive system. Human β-defensin 2 is another peptide with antibacterial action which can minimize infection in different parts of the female reproductive system such as the vagina by interacting with CCR6. Human β-defensin 2 could play a role in preventing cervical cancer via interactions with dendritic cells. Human β-defensin 126 is required for sperm motility and protecting the sperm against immune system factors. This study attempted to review the updated knowledge about the roles of β-defensin 1, β-defensin 2, and β-defensin 126 in both the male and female reproductive systems.

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