JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
REVIEW
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Role of Diet-Microbiome Interaction in Gastrointestinal Disorders and Strategies to Modulate Them with Microbiome-Targeted Therapies.

Diet is an important determinant of health and consequently is often implicated in the development of disease, particularly gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, given the high prevalence of meal-related symptoms. The mechanisms underlying diet-driven pathophysiology are not well understood, but recent studies suggest that gut microbiota may mediate the effect of diet on GI physiology. In this review, we focus primarily on two distinct GI diseases where the role of diet has been best studied: irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. We discuss how the concurrent and sequential utilization of dietary nutrients by the host and gut microbiota determines the eventual bioactive metabolite profiles in the gut and the biological effect of these metabolites on GI physiology. We highlight several concepts that can be gleaned from these findings, such as how distinct effects of an individual metabolite can influence diverse GI diseases, the effect of similar dietary interventions on multiple disease states, and the need for extensive phenotyping and data collection to help make personalized diet recommendations.

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