JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
REVIEW
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Repurposing Metformin in hematologic tumor: State of art.

Metformin is an ancient drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and many studies now suggested that metformin can be used as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of many types of tumors. The mechanism of action of metformin for tumor treatment mainly involves: 1. activation of AMPK signaling pathway 2. inhibition of DNA damage repair in tumor cells 3. downregulation of IGF-1 expression 4. inhibition of chemoresistance and enhancement of chemotherapy sensitivity in tumor cells 5. enhancement of antitumor immunity 6. inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Metformin also plays an important role in the treatment of hematologic tumors, especially in leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma (MM). The combination of metformin and chemotherapy enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy, and metformin reduces the progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM. The purpose of this review is to summarize the anticancer mechanism of metformin and the role and mechanism of action of metformin in hematologic tumors. We mainly summarize the studies related to metformin in hematologic tumors, including cellular experiments and animal experiments, as well as controlled clinical studies and clinical trials. In addition, we also focus on the possible side effects of metformin. Although a large number of preclinical and clinical studies have been performed and the role of metformin in preventing the progression of MGUS to MM has been demonstrated, metformin has not been approved for the treatment of hematologic tumors, which is related to the adverse effects of its high-dose application. Low-dose metformin reduces adverse effects and has been shown to alter the tumor microenvironment and enhance antitumor immune response, which is one of the main directions for future research.

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