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Radiographic signs of excessive occlusal forces are associated with marginal bone loss: a retrospective clinical study.

Quintessence International 2023 September 20
OBJECTIVES: Work in animal models has implicated excessive occlusal forces and occlusal trauma as co-destructive factors for periodontitis. The main aim of the present study was to make a radiographic assessment of the effects of excessive occlusal forces, ie occlusal/incisal tooth wear, widening of the periodontal space, and the presence of a mandibular torus, on interproximal marginal bone loss in a large series of patients. A secondary aim was to evaluate the statistical correlation between the parameters in two specific teeth and those of 12 teeth for marginal bone loss and six teeth for occlusal/incisal tooth wear within the same individual.

METHOD AND MATERIALS: A total of 1,950 full-mouth radiographic surveys were analyzed retrospectively. Interproximal marginal bone loss was quantified relative to the root length (Schei ruler technique). In addition, occlusal/incisal tooth wear and periodontal ligament space widening of the periodontal space were assessed, as well as the presence of a mandibular torus. Odds ratio and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the association between occlusal trauma and marginal bone loss.

RESULTS: The correlation of the measured parameters between the values for specific teeth and the whole dentition was evaluated from data from the first 400 radiographs. Teeth 41 and 33 showed the best correlation to the whole dentition: 0.85 for interproximal marginal bone loss, 0.83 for widening of the periodontal space, and 0.97 for occlusal/incisal tooth wear. The results of a logistic regression analysis with age as an independent variable, revealed a significant association between bone loss and both tooth wear (odds ratio = 2.767) and bone loss and widening of the periodontal space (odds ratio = 2.585).

CONCLUSION: Tooth wear was positively correlated to both widening of the periodontal space and marginal bone loss. No correlation was found between the presence of a mandibular torus and marginal bone loss.

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