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2023 National Heart Center/Saudi Heart Association Focused Update of the 2019 Saudi Heart Association Guidelines for the Management of Heart Failure.

BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular diseases is undeniable in local populations, who have high mortality rates and a young age of disease onset. A systematic review of emerging evidence and update of the Saudi Heart Association (SHA) 2019 heart failure (HF) guidelines was therefore undertaken.

METHODOLOGY: A panel of expert cardiologists reviewed recommendations of the 2019 guidelines following the Saudi Heart Association methodology for guideline recommendations. When needed, the panel provided updated and new recommendations endorsed by the national heart council that are appropriate for clinical practice and local resources in Saudi Arabia.

RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION: The focused update describes the appropriate use of clinical assessment as well as invasive and non-invasive modalities for the classification and diagnosis of HF. The prevention of HF was emphasized by expanding on both primary and secondary prevention approaches. Pharmacological treatment of HF was supplemented with recommendations on newer therapies, such as SGLT-2 inhibitors. Recommendations were also provided on the management of patients with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular co-morbidities, with a focus on cardio-oncology and pregnancy. Updated clinical algorithms were included in support of HF management in both the acute and chronic settings. The implementation of this focused update on HF management in clinical practice is expected to lead to improved patient outcomes by providing evidence-based comprehensive guidance for practitioners in Saudi Arabia.

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