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Clinical and paraclinical predictors of early neurological deterioration and poor outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is the second most common form of stroke. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Several clinical and radiological parameters are related to its poor outcome. The aim of this study is to elucidate the clinical, laboratory, and radiological factors associated with early neurological deterioration and poor outcome in patients with ICH.

RESULTS: seventy patients diagnosed with sICH were evaluated within the first 72 h from the onset of symptoms by Clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters. Patients were assessed for early neurological deterioration (END) during the hospital stay (up to 7 days from admission) using Glasgow coma scale (GSC), and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and within 3 months from stroke onset using modified Rankin scale (mRS). ICH score and Functional Outcome in Patients with Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage (FUNC) Score were calculated for prognostication. 27.1% and 71.42% of patients had END and showed unfavorable outcome, respectively. Clinical indices, as NIHSS > 7 on admission and age > 51 years, radiological characteristics, as large hematoma size, leukoaraiosis, and mass effect detected on CT scan, as well as serum biomarkers; serum urea level > 50 mg/dL, high neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio on admission, high ALT and AST, as well as low total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels, all were significantly associated with poor outcome in the patients. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis found the presence of aspiration to be an independent predictor of END, and the scores of NIHSS > 7 on admission, age > 51 years, and urea level > 50 mg/dL were independent predictors of poor outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: There are several predictors for END as well as poor outcome in ICH. Some are clinical, others are radiological and laboratory. Aspiration was an independent predictor of END during hospital stay (3-7 days) in patients with ICH, while older age, high NIHSS and urea level on admission were independent predictors of poor outcome.

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