Journal Article
Review
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Adverse Effects Associated with Long-Term Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors.

Proton Pump Inhibitors are used widely to manage many gastric acid-related conditions such as gastroesophageal disease, gastritis, esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, peptic ulcer disease, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated ulcers, and Helicobacter pylori eradication, around the globe. This review article focuses on adverse effects associated with the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors. Various observational studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses have established the adverse effects associated with the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors including renal disorders (acute interstitial nephritis, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease), cardiovascular risks (major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and stroke), fractures, infections ( Clostridium difficile infection, community-acquired pneumonia, and Coronavirus disease 2019), micronutrient deficiencies (hypomagnesemia, anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia), hypergastrinemia, cancers (gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatic cancer), hepatic encephalopathy, and dementia. Clinicians including prescribers and pharmacists should be aware of the adverse effects of taking proton pump inhibitors for an extended period of time. In addition, the patients taking proton pump inhibitors for long-term should be monitored for the listed adverse effects. The American Gastroenterological association recommends a few non-pharmacological measures and the use of histamine 2 blockers to lessen gastrointestinal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflex disease and the utilization of proton pump inhibitors treatment if there is a definitive indication. Additionally, the American Gastroenterological association's Best Practice Advice statements emphasize deprescribing when there is no clear indication for proton pump inhibitors therapy.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app