Journal Article
Systematic Review
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Development of the Observable Well-Being in Living With Dementia-Scale.

The Observable Well-being in Living with Dementia-Scale was developed to address conceptual and methodological issues in current observational scales for music therapy. Creative interventions may receive lowered scores, as existing instruments rely heavily on verbal behavior. Methods were (1) Systematic review of observational instruments: (2) field work with music therapy and sociable interactions to operationalize the items; (3) field testing assessing feasibility and preliminary psychometric properties; (4) focus groups with experts to investigate content validity; (5) final field test and revision. 2199 OWLS-ratings were conducted in 11 participants. Hypotheses of construct validity and responsiveness were supported (r = .33 -.65). Inter-rater reliability was good (84% agreement between coders, Cohen's Kappa = .82), and intra-rater reliability was excellent (98% agreement, Cohen's Kappa = .98). Focus groups with 8 experts supported the relevance of the items and suggested further refinements to increase comprehensiveness. The final field-tested OWLS showed improved inter-rater reliability and usability.

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