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Genetic and Epigenetic Basis of Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but severe adverse drug reaction seen in pharmacotherapy and a major cause of postmarketing drug withdrawals. Advances in genome-wide studies indicate that genetic and epigenetic diversity can lead to inter-individual differences in drug response and toxicity. It is necessary to identify how the genetic variations, in the presence of environmental factors, can contribute to development and progression of DILI. Studies on microRNA, histone modification, DNA methylation, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to DILI were retrieved from databases and were analyzed for the current research and updated to develop this narrative review. We have compiled some of the major genetic, epigenetic, and pharmacogenetic factors leading to DILI. Many validated genetic risk factors of DILI, such as variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes, HLA alleles, and some transporters were identified. In conclusion, these studies provide useful information in risk alleles identification and on implementation of personalized medicine.

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