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Consensus Sonographic Definitions of Tenosynovitis in Children.

UNLABELLED: Synovitis and tenosynovitis are present in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), both as joint pain and/or inflammation, making them difficult to detect on physical examination (PE). Although ultrasound (US) allows discrimination of the two entities, only definitions and scoring of synovitis in children have been established.

OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based US definitions of tenosynovitis in JIA.

METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed. Selection criteria included studies focused on US definition and scoring systems for tenosynovitis in children, as well as US metric properties. Through a 2-step Delphi process, a panel of international US experts developed definitions for tenosynovitis components (step 1) and validated them by testing their applicability on US images of tenosynovitis in several age groups (step 2). A 5-point Likert scale was used to rate the level of agreement.

RESULTS: Fourteen studies were identified. Most used the US definitions developed for adults to define tenosynovitis in children. Construct validity was reported in 86% of articles using as comparator PE. Few studies reported US reliability and responsiveness in JIA. In step 1, experts reached a strong group agreement (>86%) by applying adult definitions to children after one round. After 4 rounds of step 2, the final definitions were validated on all tendons and at all locations, except for biceps tenosynovitis in children under 4 years.

CONCLUSION: The study shows that the definition of tenosynovitis used in adults is applicable to children with minimal modifications agreed upon through a Delphi process. Further studies are required to confirm our results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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