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Incidence, Treatment and Outcomes of Coronary Artery Dissection During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery dissection is a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

METHODS: We examined the clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics, and outcomes of coronary dissection at a tertiary care institution.

RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2019, unplanned coronary dissection occurred in 141 of 10,278 PCIs (1.4%). Median patient age was 68 (60, 78) years, 68% were men, and 83% had hypertension. The prevalence of diabetes (29%), and prior PCI (37%) was high. Most target vessels were significantly diseased: 48% had moderate/severe tortuosity and 62% had moderate/severe calcification. The most common cause of dissection was guidewire advancement (30%), followed by stenting (22%), balloon angioplasty (20%), and guide-catheter engagement (18%). TIMI flow was 0 in 33% and 1-2 in 41% of cases. Intravascular imaging was used in 17% of the cases. Stenting was used to treat the dissection in 73% of patients. There was no consequence of dissection in 43% of patients. Technical and procedural success was 65% and 55%, respectively. In-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 23% of patients: 13 (9%) had an acute myocardial infarction (MI), 3 (2%) had emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 10 (7%) died. During a mean follow up of 1,612 days, 28 (20%) patients died, and the rate of target lesion revascularization was 11.3% (n=16).

CONCLUSION: Coronary artery dissection is an infrequent complication of PCI, but is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as death and acute MI.

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