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Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With Balloon-Expandable Valve Prostheses in Patients With Pure Native Non- or Mildly Calcified Aortic Regurgitation: A Case-Series and Literature Review.

OBJECTIVE: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an off-label procedure for selected patients at high surgical risk with native non- or mildly calcified aortic regurgitation (AR). Traditionally, self-expanding transcatheter heart valves (THV) have been favored over balloon-expandable THV's probably due to assumed better device fixation. We report a series of patients with native severe AR successfully treated with a balloon-expandable THV.

METHODS: Between 2019 and 2022, 8 consecutive patients (5 male, 82 (interquartile range 80-85) years old, STS PROM 4.0 % (interquartile range 2.9-6.0), EuroSCORE II 5.5% (IQR 4.1-7.0) with non- or mildly calcified pure AR were treated with a balloon-expandable THV. All procedures were performed after heart team discussion and standardized diagnostic workup. Clinical endpoints were collected prospectively and included device success, procedural complications (according to VARC-2 definitions) and 1-month survival.

RESULTS: Device success was 100% with no device embolization or migration. Two preprocedural nonfatal complications were reported (one access site complication that required stent implantation and one pericardial tamponade). Two patients required permanent pacemaker implantation for complete AV block. At discharge and at 30-day follow-up all patients were alive and no patient showed more than minimal AR.

CONCLUSION: This series documents that treatment of native non- or mildly calcified AR with balloon-expandable THV is feasible, safe and offers favorable short-term clinical outcomes. Hence, TAVI with balloon-expandable THVs may offer a valuable treatment option in patients with native AR at high surgical risk.

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