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iFR/FFR/IVUS Discordance and Clinical Implications: Results From the Prospective Left Main Physiology Registry.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess discordance between results of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), fractional flow reserve (FFR), and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in intermediate left main coronary (LM) lesions, and its impact on clinical decision making and outcome.

METHODS: We enrolled 250 patients with a 40%-80% LM stenosis in a prospective, multicenter registry. These patients underwent both iFR and FFR measurements. Of these, 86 underwent IVUS and assessment of the minimal lumen area (MLA), with a 6 mm2 cutoff for significance.

RESULTS: Isolated LM disease was recognized in 95 patients (38.0%), while 155 patients (62.0%) had both LM disease and downstream disease. In 53.2% of iFR+ and 56.7% of FFR+ LM lesions, the measurement was positive in only one daughter vessel. iFR/FFR discordance occurred in 25.0% of patients with isolated LM disease and 36.2% of patients with concomitant downstream disease (P=.049). In patients with isolated LM disease, discordance was significantly more common in the left anterior descending artery and younger age was an independent predictor of iFR-/FFR+ discordance. iFR/MLA and FFR/MLA discordance occurred in 37.0% and 29.4%, respectively. Within 1 year of follow-up, major cardiac adverse events (MACE) occurred in 8.5% and 9.7% (P=.763) of patients whose LM lesion was deferred or revascularized, respectively. Discordance was not an independent predictor of MACE.

CONCLUSIONS: Current methods of estimating LM lesion significance often yield discrepant findings, complicating therapeutic decision-making.

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