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MINOCA and INOCA: Role in Heart Failure.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infarction (MINOCA) and ischaemia (INOCA) with non-obstructive coronary disease are recent non-conventional presentations of coronary syndromes that are increasingly recognised in the clinical arena, particularly with the availability of new cardiovascular imaging techniques. Both are related to heart failure (HF). MINOCA is not associated with benign outcomes, and HF is among the most prevalent events. Regarding INOCA, microvascular dysfunction has also been found to associate with HF, particularly with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

RECENT FINDINGS: Regardless of the several aetiologies underlying HF in MINOCA, it is likely related to LV dysfunction, where secondary prevention is not yet clearly established. Regarding INOCA, coronary microvascular ischaemia has been associated to endothelial dysfunction leading ultimately to diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF. MINOCA and INOCA are clearly related to HF. In both, there is a lack of studies on the identification of the risk factors for HF, diagnostic workup and, importantly, the appropriate primary and secondary prevention strategies.

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