JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Major Gaps in Understanding Dietary Supplement Use in Health and Disease.

Precise dietary assessment is critical for accurate exposure classification in nutritional research, typically aimed at understanding how diet relates to health. Dietary supplement (DS) use is widespread and represents a considerable source of nutrients. However, few studies have compared the best methods to measure DSs. Our literature review on the relative validity and reproducibility of DS instruments in the United States [e.g., product inventories, questionnaires, and 24-h dietary recalls (24HR)] identified five studies that examined validity ( n = 5) and/or reproducibility ( n = 4). No gold standard reference method exists for validating DS use; thus, each study's investigators chose the reference instrument used to measure validity. Self-administered questionnaires agreed well with 24HR and inventory methods when comparing the prevalence of commonly used DSs. The inventory method captured nutrient amounts more accurately than the other methods. Reproducibility (over 3 months to 2.4 years) of prevalence of use estimates on the questionnaires was acceptable for common DSs. Given the limited body of research on measurement error in DS assessment, only tentative conclusions on these DS instruments can be drawn at present. Further research is critical to advancing knowledge in DS assessment for research and monitoring purposes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition , Volume 43 is August 2023. Please see https://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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