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Predictive Factors of Treatment Outcomes After Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Hepatocaval Confluence: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

Academic Radiology 2023 May 11
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and complications of ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the hepatocaval confluence with those of HCC in the non-hepatocaval confluence and to explore the risk factors that lead to radiofrequency ablation failure and patient local tumor progression (LTP).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2017 to January 2022, 86 patients with HCC in the hepatocaval confluence who had radiofrequency ablation were included. A 1:1 propensity-matched group of patients with HCC in the non-hepatocaval confluence with comparable clinical baseline traits, such as tumor diameter and tumor number, served as the control group. The two groups' complications, primary efficacy rate (PER), technical success rate (TSR), and prognosis were estimated.

RESULTS: After PSM, no significant difference of TSR (91.7% vs 95.8%, p = 0.491) and PER (95.8% vs 97.2%, p = 1.000) and 1-, 3-, and 5-year LTP rate (12.5% vs 9.9%, 28.2% vs 27.7%, 40.8% vs 43.8%, p = 0.959) and 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rate (87.5% vs 87.5%, 62.3% vs 54.2%, 18.1% vs 22.6%, p = 0.437) and 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rate (94.3% vs 95.7%, 72.7% vs 69.6%, 20.9% vs 33.6%, p = 0.904) was detected between the two groups. The tumor-to-IVC distance was an independent risk factor for radiofrequency ablation failure in HCC patients in the hepatocaval confluence (OR = 0.611, p = 0.022). Besides, tumor diameter was an independent risk factor for predicting LTP in patients with HCC in the hepatocaval confluence (HR = 2.209, p = 0.046).

CONCLUSION: HCC in the hepatocaval confluence can be effectively treated with radiofrequency ablation. To maximize treatment efficacy, the tumor-to-IVC distance and tumor diameter should be assessed before the operation begins.

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