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Time for a Change: Considering Vancomycin Alternatives for Pediatric Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Vancomycin remains the standard of care for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia in pediatrics largely because no alternative antibiotic is definitively superior. Long-standing historical precedent and S. aureus' notable lack of vancomycin resistance are clear benefits, but vancomycin's use remains plagued by nephrotoxicity and the need for therapeutic drug monitoring, with inadequate consensus on how best to dose or monitor vancomycin in pediatrics. Daptomycin, ceftaroline, and linezolid are all promising alternatives, with improved safety relative to vancomycin. However, inadequate and variable efficacy data limit confidence in their use. Despite this, we contend that it is time for clinicians to reconsider vancomycin's place in clinical use. In this review, we summarize the supporting data for using vancomycin versus these other anti-MRSA antibiotics, present a framework for antibiotic decision-making that considers patient-specific factors, and discuss approaches to antibiotic selection for various etiologies of MRSA bacteremia. This review aims to help pediatric clinicians choose among the various treatment options for MRSA bacteremia, acknowledging that the optimal antibiotic choice is sometimes uncertain.

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