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Giant juvenile fibroadenomas with and without prominent pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH)-like change: clinicopathological and molecular characteristics.

Histopathology 2023 May 5
AIMS: Juvenile fibroadenomas (JFA) are biphasic fibroepithelial lesions (FEL) usually occurring in adolescent female patients. Giant (G) JFA, like other FEL, may exhibit prominent pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH)-like change. We sought to determine clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of GJFA with and without PASH.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Archives were searched for cases of GJFA (1985-2020). All were stained for androgen receptor (AR), beta-catenin, CD34 and progesterone receptor (PR). Cases were sequenced using a custom 16-gene panel - MED12 (exons 1 and 2), TERT promoter (-124C>T and -146Ctable>T), SETD2, KMT2D, RARA (exons 5-9), FLNA, NF1, PIK3CA (exons 10, 11 and 21), EGFR, RB1, BCOR, TP53, PTEN, ERBB4, IGF1R and MAP3K1. Twenty-seven GJFA from 21 female patients aged 10.1-25.2 years were identified. Size ranged from 5.2 to 21 cm. Two patients had multiple, bilateral and later recurrent GJFA. Thirteen (48%) cases showed prominent PASH-like stroma. All were positive for stromal CD34, negative for AR and beta-catenin and one case showed focal PR expression. Sequencing showed MAP3K1 and SETD2 mutations in 17 samples, with KMT2D, TP53 and BCOR aberrations in 10 (45%), 10 (45%) and seven (32%) cases, respectively. Tumours with a PASH-like pattern had higher prevalence of SETD2 (P = 0.004) and TP53 (P = 0.029) mutations, while those without PASH had more RB1 mutations (P = 0.043). MED12 mutation was identified in one case. TERT promoter mutation was observed in four (18%), including two recurrences.

CONCLUSIONS: Gene mutations along more advanced phases of the proposed FEL pathogenetic pathway in GJFA are unusual, and suggest a mechanism for more aggressive growth in these tumours.

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