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Morphological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of levetiracetam on pregnant albino rats and their offspring.

One of the most widely used medications for epilepsy is the broad-spectrum antiseizure levetiracetam. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of levetiracetam on the bodyweight and liver of pregnant rats and their offspring. The study involved treating the rats during pregnancy and lactation and then examining the pregnant rats and their offspring. Two groups of 40 pregnant rats were created (I, II). Each group was split up into two smaller groups (A, B). About 1.5 mL/day of distilled water was gavaged to the rats in group I, either continuously throughout pregnancy (IA) or continuously throughout pregnancy and 15 days after delivery (IB). Group II rats received 1.5 ml/day of distilled water (containing levetiracetam) either during pregnancy (IIA) or during pregnancy plus 15 days postpartum (IIB). At the end of the work, blood samples were taken from the adult rats, body weight of different groups were recorded, and then, their liver was subjected for histological and morphometric analysis. Levetiracetam treatment showed reduction in the body weight of adult rats and their offspring and pathological changes in their liver. These changes were in the form of distortion of the hepatic architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolation, nuclear changes, and swollen mitochondria with loss of their cristae. Such changes were proved by alteration in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme levels of the liver. It is advised to monitor the liver functions continuously when using levetiracetam.

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