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Incidence, source, and prognostic impact of major bleeding across the spectrum of aortic stenosis.

BACKGROUND: Severe aortic stenosis (AS) has been associated with bleeding. However, there is a lack of prospective assessment of bleeding events and their clinical significance in a large population of outpatients with variable degree of AS severity.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence, source, determinants, and prognostic impact of major bleeding in patients with variable degree of AS severity.

METHODS: Between May 2016 and December 2017, consecutive outpatients were included. Major bleeding was defined as type ≥3 bleed using the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition. Cumulative incidence was calculated with death as the competing event. Data was censored at time of aortic valve replacement.

RESULTS: Among 2,830 patients, 46 major bleeding events occurred (0.7%/year) during a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range: 1.4-2.7). Most frequent sites of bleeding were gastrointestinal (50%) and intracranial (30.4%). Major bleeding was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 5.93 (95% confidence interval 3.64-9.65); P < .001). AS severity was associated with major bleedings (P = .041). By multivariable analysis, severe AS was an independent determinant of major bleeding (hazard ratio vs mild AS: 3.59 [95% confidence interval 1.56-8.29]; P = .003). The increased risk of bleeding associated with severe AS was significantly exacerbated in patients using oral anticoagulation.

CONCLUSION: In AS patients, major bleeding is rare but a strong independent predictor of death. AS severity is a determinant of bleeding events. Severe AS and oral anticoagulation should be identified as an association at very high risk of major bleeding.

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