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Fibroadipose vascular anomaly: a clinicopathological study of 75 cases.

Histopathology 2023 April 27
AIMS: Fibroadipose vascular anomaly (FAVA) is a complex vascular malformation that is likely to be under-recognised. In this study we aimed to report the pathological features and somatic PIK3CA mutations associated with the most common clinicopathological features.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Cases were identified by reviewing the lesions resected from patients with FAVA registered at our Haemangioma Surgery Centre and unusual intramuscular vascular anomalies in our pathology database. There were 23 males and 52 females, who ranged in age from 1 to 51 years. Most cases occurred in the lower extremities (n = 62). The majority of the lesions were intramuscular, with a few disrupting the overlying fascia and involving subcutaneous fat (19 of 75), and a minority of the cases had cutaneous vascular stains (13 of 75). Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of anomalous vascular components that were intertwined with mature adipocytic and dense fibrous tissues and vascular components with: (a) clusters of thin-walled channels, some with blood-filled nodules and others with thin walls resembling pulmonary alveoli; (b) numerous small vessels (arteries, veins and indeterminate channels) - proliferative small blood vessels were often mixed with adipose tissue; (c) larger abnormal venous channels usually irregularly and sometimes excessively muscularised; (d) lymphoid aggregates or lymphoplasmacytic aggregates were usually observed; and (e) lymphatic malformations were sometimes seen as minor elements. All patients had their lessons subjected to PCR, and 53 patients had somatic PIK3CA mutations (53 of 75).

CONCLUSIONS: FAVA is a slow-flow vascular malformation with specific clinicopathological and molecular characteristics. Its recognition is fundamental for its clinical/prognostic implications and for targeted therapy.

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