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Molecular genetic diagnosis of kidney ciliopathies: Lessons from interpreting genomic sequencing data and the requirement for accurate phenotypic data.

INTRODUCTION: Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) techniques have made a major impact on the identification of the genetic basis of inherited kidney diseases such as the ciliopathy autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Great care must be taken when analysing MPS data in isolation from accurate phenotypic information, as this can cause misdiagnosis.

METHODS: Here, we describe a family trio, recruited to the Genomics England 100,000 Genomes Project, labelled as having cystic kidney disease, who were genetically unsolved following routine data analysis pipelines. We performed a bespoke reanalysis of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) data and coupled this with revised phenotypic data and targeted PCR and Sanger sequencing to provide a precise molecular genetic diagnosis.

RESULTS: We detected a heterozygous PKD1 frameshift variant within the WGS data which segregated with the redefined ADPKD phenotypes. An additional heterozygous exon deletion in ALG8 was also found in affected and unaffected individuals, but its precise clinical significance remains unclear.

CONCLUSION: This case illustrates that reanalysis of WGS data in unsolved cases of cystic kidney disease is valuable. Clinical phenotypes must be reassessed as these may have been incorrectly recorded and evolve over time. Undertaking additional studies including genotype-phenotype correlation in wider family members provides useful diagnostic information.

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