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Retrospective Review of Directional Atherectomy and Drug-Coated Balloon Use in a PAD Safety-Net Population.

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly once patients develop critical limb threatening ischemia (CLTI). Minorities and vulnerable populations often present with CLTI and experience worse outcomes. The use of directional atherectomy (DA) and drug-coated balloon (DCB) during lower-extremity revascularization (LER) has not been previously described in a safety-net population.

OBJECTIVE: To review demographic and clinical characteristics, and short- intermediate term outcomes of patients presenting to a safety-net hospital with PAD treated with DA and DCB during LER.

METHODS: In this retrospective, observational cohort study, chart review was performed of all patients who underwent DA and DCB during LER for PAD from April 2016 to January 2020 in a safety-net hospital.

RESULTS: The analysis included 58 patients, with 41% female, 24% Black/African American, and 31% Hispanic. From this group, 17% spoke a non-English primary language and 10% reported current or previous housing insecurity. Most (65%) presented with CLTI and had undergone a previous index leg LER (58%). The combination of DA and DCB was efficacious, resulting in low rates of bail-out stenting (16%) and target-vessel revascularization (26%) at 2 years. Low complication rates (tibial embolism in 12% and vessel perforation in 2% of cases) were also observed. Most patients (67%) with Rutherford category 5 experienced wound healing by 2 years.

CONCLUSION: In this safety-net population, the majority presented with CLTI and a previous LER of the index leg. The combination of DA and DCB resulted in low complication rates, and good short-intermediate outcomes in this frequently undertreated population.

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