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Clinical, radiological and electrophysiological predictors for drug-resistant epilepsy.

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the third chronic brain illness worldwide. About a third of the epileptic patients will be drug resistant. Early identification of these patients is critical for appropriate treatment selection and prevention of the devastating consequences of recurrent seizures. The objective of this study aims to detect clinical, electrophysiological, and radiological predictors for drug-resistant epilepsy patients.

RESULTS: One hundred fifty-five patients were included in this study, divided into a well-controlled epilepsy group (103 patients) and a drug-resistant group (52 patients). Both groups were compared regarding clinical, electrophysiological, and neuro-radiological data. Younger age at onset, history of delayed milestones, history of perinatal insult (especially hypoxia), mental retardation, neurological deficits, depression, status epilepticus (SE), complex febrile seizures, focal seizure to bilateral tonic-clonic convulsion as well as multiple seizures and high seizure frequency (daily) at onset, poor response to first anti-seizure drug (ASD), structural and metabolic etiology, abnormal brain imaging, and slow background and multifocal epileptiform discharges in EEG were significant risk factors for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy.

CONCLUSION: MRI abnormalities are the most significant predictor for drug-resistant epilepsy. Drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with clinical, electrophysiological, and radiological risk factors that can be used to diagnose drug-resistant patients early and choose the best treatment option and time.

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