Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Renal Histopathology Associated With Kidney Failure and Mortality in Patients With Lupus Nephritis: A Long-Term Real-World Data Study.

OBJECTIVE: Lupus nephritis (LN), a common manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, is associated with a higher risk of kidney failure and death. The renal pathology of LN helps elucidate the severity of inflammation and the extent of irreversible damage. We aimed to identify histologic variables that correlate with risks of kidney failure and mortality.

METHODS: Between 2006 and 2019, a total of 526 patients with LN were enrolled. Renal pathology was classified according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification. Components of activity and chronicity indices were analyzed to determine which variables correlated with an increased risk of kidney failure and death, with the adjustment of potential confounders.

RESULTS: During the follow-up period (median 7.5, IQR 3.5-10.7 years), 58 patients progressed to kidney failure and 64 died. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, tubular atrophy (hazard ratio [HR] 2.28, 95% CI 1.66-3.14) and tubulointerstitial inflammation (HR 3.13, 95% CI 1.34-7.33) predicted kidney failure. The renal outcome was even worse if tubular atrophy and tubulointerstitial inflammation coexisted (10-year kidney survival rate: 63.22%). The presence of cellular crescents was associated with an increased risk of death in male patients with LN (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.02-3.57), whereas the presence of fibrous crescents predicted death in female patients with LN (HR 5.70, 95% CI 1.61-20.25).

CONCLUSION: Histologic variables of renal biopsy in LN could be regarded as prognostic indicators for kidney failure and mortality.

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