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Odontogenic Carcinosarcoma: An Updated Literature Review and Report of a Case.

BACKGROUND: Odontogenic carcinosarcoma (OCS) is an exceptionally rare malignant mixed odontogenic neoplasm, which mostly arises from recurrent benign odontogenic tumour that undergoes malignant transformation.

METHODS: A literature review was conducted using the keyword of "Odontogenic carcinosarcoma" and all relevant articles were screened. The data collected include demographic profile (age, gender), clinical information (symptoms, location, size), radiologic features, histopathological examination, management, recurrence, metastases, and survival status.

RESULTS: A total of 17 OCS cases including a new case from our hospital. The incidence of OCS was highest in the third decades of life with predilection for male and posterior region of mandible. Clinically, patients may present with swelling and neurological symptoms. Radiographic examination often showed radiolucency with ill-defined border. This tumour demonstrates an aggressive behaviour with reported cases of distant metastases to the lung, lymph nodes, rib, and pelvis. Here, we report an interesting case of OCS in a 38-year-old man with a previous diagnosis of ameloblastoma. The patient was diagnosed with ameloblastoma but refused surgical intervention and returned after 10 years with rapidly enlarging mass on the right side of mandible. Microscopically, the lesion appears as biphasic odontogenic tumour with malignant cytological features seen in both epithelium and mesenchymal components. The spindle to round mesenchymal tumour cells were only positive for vimentin. Ki67 proliferation index was high in both epithelium and mesenchymal components.

CONCLUSION: This case showed the tendency of untreated ameloblastoma to undergo malignant changes in the long term.

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