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The Role of Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Treatment of Rotatory Knee Instability: a Scoping Review.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The addition of lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) has become increasingly popular to address residual rotatory knee instability. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy and biomechanics of the anterolateral complex (ALC) of the knee, outline different LET techniques, and provide biomechanical and clinical evidence for its use as an augmentation procedure with ACLR.

RECENT FINDINGS: Rotatory knee instability has been identified as a common contributor to ACL rupture in both the primary and revision settings. Several biomechanical studies have shown that LET reduces strain on the ACL by decreasing excess tibial translation and rotation. Additionally, in vivo studies have demonstrated restoration of side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee translation, higher rates of return to play, and overall increased patient satisfaction following combined ACLR and LET. As a result, various LET techniques have been developed to help offload the ACL graft and lateral compartment of the knee. However, conclusions are limited by a lack of concrete indications and contraindications for use of LET in the clinical setting. Recent studies have shown that rotatory knee instability contributes to native ACL and ACL graft rupture and LET may provide further stability to reduce rates of failure. Further investigation is needed to establish concrete indications and contraindications to determine which patients would most benefit from added stability of the ALC.

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