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Reverse vaccinology-based identification of a novel surface lipoprotein that is an effective vaccine antigen against bovine infections caused by Pasteurella multocida.

PLoS Pathogens 2023 March 25
Pasteurella multocida can infect a multitude of wild and domesticated animals, with infections in cattle resulting in hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) or contributing to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. Current cattle vaccines against P. multocida consist of inactivated bacteria, which only offer limited and serogroup specific protection. Here, we describe a newly identified surface lipoprotein, PmSLP, that is present in nearly all annotated P. multocida strains isolated from cattle. Bovine associated variants span three of the four identified phylogenetic clusters, with PmSLP-1 and PmSLP-2 being restricted to BRD associated isolates and PmSLP-3 being restricted to isolates associated with HS. Recombinantly expressed, soluble PmSLP-1 (BRD-PmSLP) and PmSLP-3 (HS-PmSLP) vaccines were both able to provide full protection in a mouse sepsis model against the matched P. multocida strain, however no cross-protection and minimal serum IgG cross-reactivity was identified. Full protection against both challenge strains was achieved with a bivalent vaccine containing both BRD-PmSLP and HS-PmSLP, with serum IgG from immunized mice being highly reactive to both variants. Year-long stability studies with lyophilized antigen stored under various temperatures show no appreciable difference in biophysical properties or loss of efficacy in the mouse challenge model. PmSLP-1 and PmSLP-3 vaccines were each evaluated for immunogenicity in two independent cattle trials involving animals of different age ranges and breeds. In all four trials, vaccination with PmSLP resulted in an increase in antigen specific serum IgG over baseline. In a blinded cattle challenge study with a recently isolated HS strain, the matched HS-PmSLP vaccine showed strong efficacy (75-87.5% survival compared to 0% in the control group). Together, these data suggest that cattle vaccines composed of PmSLP antigens can be a practical and effective solution for preventing HS and BRD related P. multocida infections.

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