JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Regulated cell death pathways in kidney disease.

Disorders of cell number that result from an imbalance between the death of parenchymal cells and the proliferation or recruitment of maladaptive cells contributes to the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Acute kidney injury can result from an acute loss of kidney epithelial cells. In chronic kidney disease, loss of kidney epithelial cells leads to glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy, whereas interstitial inflammation and fibrosis result from an excess of leukocytes and myofibroblasts. Other conditions, such as acquired cystic disease and kidney cancer, are characterized by excess numbers of cyst wall and malignant cells, respectively. Cell death modalities act to clear unwanted cells, but disproportionate responses can contribute to the detrimental loss of kidney cells. Indeed, pathways of regulated cell death - including apoptosis and necrosis - have emerged as central events in the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention. Modes of regulated necrosis, such as ferroptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis may cause kidney injury directly or through the recruitment of immune cells and stimulation of inflammatory responses. Importantly, multiple layers of interconnections exist between different modalities of regulated cell death, including shared triggers, molecular components and protective mechanisms.

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