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Overlapping risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 1 diabetes on ipragliflozin: case analysis of spontaneous reports in Japan from a pharmacovigilance safety database.

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Ipragliflozin is an SGLT2 inhibitor approved in Japan in combination with insulin for patients with T1D.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Spontaneous safety reports of ipragliflozin adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients with T1D were collected during early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV; 21 December 2018-20 June 2019). For patients with T1D prescribed ipragliflozin who experienced DKA, we examined DKA event data registered in the manufacturer's safety database (21 December 2018-31 December 2021), including patient background characteristics.

RESULTS: During EPPV, there were 189 total events (45 serious) of ADRs, including 32 serious events of ketoacidosis. From 2018 to 2021, the major DKA risk factors were sick days, stopping or inappropriately decreasing insulin, insulin pump trouble, and low carbohydrate diet, with substantial overlap among these factors.

CONCLUSIONS: In Japanese patients with T1D using ipragliflozin, DKA events were linked to several overlapping factors, including sick days and reduced dose/interruption of insulin, whether intentional or unexpected. These results highlight the need for improved patient education regarding ipragliflozin use and appropriate self-management of ketosis from an early stage.

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