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Long-term arteriovenous fistula prognosis for maintenance hemodialysis patients who accepted PIRRT by using arteriovenous fistula.

BACKGROUND: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are often admitted to the hospital for severe morbidities. Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is required during the hospital staying. There are controversial opinions on the use of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as vascular access for PIRRT in MHD patients.

METHODS: Patients with AVF who accepted PIRRT in our center between January 2014 and June 2021 were retrospectively screened. AVF dysfunction and patient mortality were assessed as endpoints. Univariate and multivariate regression models were employed to identify the risk factors of AVF dysfunction.

RESULTS: About 162 patients were included in our present study. Twenty-six experienced AVF dysfunction, of whom 53.8%, 19.2%, and 27.0% had percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty, surgical revision, and AVF reconstruction, respectively. The accumulated AVF dysfunction rates were 11.8%, 16.2%, and 21.0% in 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking (HR 2.750, 95% CI 1.181-6.402, p  = 0.019), higher platelet (PLT, HR 1.009, 95% CI 1.000-1.017, p  = 0.047), higher prothrombin activity (PTA, HR 1.039, 95% CI 1.012-1.066, p  = 0.004), and lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP, HR 0.963, 95% CI 0.932-0.996, p  = 0.026) were independent risk factors for AVF dysfunction. During the follow-up period, 37 patients died.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the use of AVF for PIRRT might not dramatically increase the incidence of AVF dysfunction. And, Smoking, lower DBP, higher PLT, and higher PTA were associated with increased AVF dysfunction.

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