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Prognostic factors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with TCF3::PBX1 in CCCG-ALL-2015: A multicenter study.

Cancer 2023 March 22
BACKGROUND: Contemporary risk-directed treatment has improved the outcome of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and TCF3::PBX1 fusion. In this study, the authors seek to identify prognostic factors that can be used to further improve outcome.

METHODS: The authors studied 384 patients with this genotype treated on Chinese Children's Cancer Group ALL-2015 protocol between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019. All patients provisionally received intensified chemotherapy in the intermediate-risk arm without prophylactic cranial irradiation; those with high minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥1% at day 46 (end) of remission induction were candidates for hematopoietic cell transplantation.

RESULTS: The overall 5-year event-free survival was 84.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.6-88.3) and 5-year overall survival 88.9% (95% CI, 85.5-92.4). Independent factors associated with lower 5-year event-free survival were male sex (80.4%, [95% CI, 74.8-86.4] vs. 88.9%, [95% CI, 84.1-93.9] in female, p = .03) and positive day 46 MRD (≥0.01%) (62.1%, [95% CI, 44.2-87.4] vs. 87.1%, [95% CI, 83.4-90.9] in patients with negative MRD, p < .001). The presence of testicular leukemia at diagnosis (n = 10) was associated with particularly dismal 5-year event-free survival (33.3% [95% CI, 11.6-96.1] vs. 83.0% [95% CI, 77.5-88.9] in the other 192 male patients, p < .001) and was an independent risk factor (hazard ratio [HR], 5.7; [95% CI, 2.2-14.5], p < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the presence of positive MRD after intensive remission induction and testicular leukemia at diagnosis are indicators for new molecular therapeutics or immunotherapy in patients with TCF3::PBX1 ALL.

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