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Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal With the Hemolung in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) devices are effective in reducing hypercapnia and mechanical ventilation support but have not been shown to reduce mortality. This may be due to case selection, device performance, familiarity, or the management. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a single ECCO2R device (Hemolung) in patients with acute respiratory failure and identify variables associated with survival that could help case selection in clinical practice as well as future research.

DESIGN: Multicenter, multinational, retrospective review.

SETTING: Data from the Hemolung Registry between April 2013 and June 2021, where 57 ICUs contributed deidentified data.

PATIENTS: Patients with acute respiratory failure treated with the Hemolung. The characteristics of patients who survived to ICU discharge were compared with those who died. Multivariable logistical regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with ICU survival.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 159 patients included, 65 (41%) survived to ICU discharge. The survival was highest in status asthmaticus (86%), followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (52%) and COVID-19 ARDS (31%). All patients had a significant reduction in Paco2 and improvement in pH with reduction in mechanical ventilation support. Patients who died were older, had a lower Pao2:Fio2 (P/F) and higher use of adjunctive therapies. There was no difference in the complications between patients who survived to those who died. Multivariable regression analysis showed non-COVID-19 ARDS, age less than 65 years, and P/F at initiation of ECCO2R to be independently associated with survival to ICU discharge (P/F 100-200 vs <100: odds ratio, 6.57; 95% CI, 2.03-21.33).

CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement in hypercapnic acidosis along with reduction in ventilation supports was noted within 4 hours of initiating ECCO2R. Non-COVID-19 ARDS, age, and P/F at commencement of ECCO2R were independently associated with survival.

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