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The Formation of NETs and Their Mechanism of Promoting Tumor Metastasis.

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are network structures comprised of decondensed DNA strands coated with granule proteins. There have been three types of NETs recorded. NETs have been discovered concerning the progression of some malignancies, including gastric cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and lung cancer, among others. In various methods, tumors encourage the formation of NETs, and NETs, in turn, promote tumor growth. NETs can stimulate primary tumor cell proliferation, suppress immune cells to create a tumor-friendly immune microenvironment, and stimulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). NETs significantly promote liver and lung metastasis, possibly by altering vascular permeability, inducing cytoskeleton rearrangement and directional cell migration, and reawakening dormant cancer cells. NETs are therapeutically promising targets for cancer patients. Cancer patients may benefit from anti-NETs therapy, especially when combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

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