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Lupus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and stroke: An attempt to crossmatch.

Lupus 2023 April
Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) or strokes are part of the common thrombotic manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLEs) and Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Such neurological thrombotic events tend to occur in patients with SLE at a higher frequency when Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are present, and tend to involve the large cerebral vessels. The mechanism of stroke in SLE can be driven by complement deposition and neuroinflammation involving the blood-brain barrier although the traditional cardiovascular risk factors remain major contributing factors. Primary prevention with antiplatelet therapy and disease activity controlling agent is the basis of the management. Anticoagulation via warfarin had been a tool for secondary prevention, especially in stroke recurrence, although the debate continues regarding the target international normalized ratio (INR). The presence of either of the three criteria antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and certain non-criteria aPL can be an independent risk factor for stroke. The exact mechanism for the involvement of the large cerebral arteries, especially in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) positive cases, is still to be deciphered. The data on the role of non-criteria aPL remain very limited and heterogenous, but IgA antibodies against β2GPI and the D4/5 subunit as well as aPS/PT IgG might have a contribution. Anticoagulation with warfarin has been recommended although the optimal dosing or the utility of combination with antiplatelet agents is still unknown. Minimal data is available for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs).

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