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Mast Cell Proteases Cleave Prion Proteins and a Recombinant Ig against PrP Can Activate Human Mast Cells.

Journal of Immunology 2023 March 21
IgE Abs, best known for their role in allergic reactions, have only rarely been used in immunotherapies. Nevertheless, they offer a potential alternative to the more commonly used IgGs. The affinity of IgE Ag binding influences the type of response from mast cells, so any immunotherapies using IgEs must balance Ag affinity with desired therapeutic effect. One potential way to harness differential binding affinities of IgE is in protein aggregation diseases, where low-affinity binding of endogenous proteins is preferred, but enhanced binding of clusters of disease-associated aggregated proteins could target responses to the sites of disease. For this reason, we sought to create a low-affinity IgE against the prion protein (PrP), which exists in an endogenous monomeric state but can misfold into aggregated states during the development of prion disease. First, we determined that mast cell proteases tryptase and cathepsin G were capable of degrading PrP. Then we engineered a recombinant IgE Ab directed against PrP from the V region of a PrP-specific IgG and tested its activation of the human mast cell line LAD2. The αPrP IgE bound LAD2 through Fc receptors. Crosslinking receptor-bound αPrP IgE activated SYK and ERK phosphorylation, caused Fc receptor internalization, and resulted in degranulation. This work shows that a recombinant αPrP IgE can activate LAD2 cells to release enzymes that can degrade PrP, suggesting that IgE may be useful in targeting diseases that involve protein aggregation.

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