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Sustained Effect of Auditory Entrainment With Coordinated Movement Varies With Temporal Complexity of Sequential Tapping.

While the ability to coordinate movements temporally with rhythmic auditory stimuli is universal, previous investigators showed that accurate rhythm reproduction depends on temporal complexity. To date, the effect of multiple pitches on the timing of rhythmic movements has been assumed. Exploring a possible sustained entrainment effect of auditory stimuli on sequential movement might further elucidate the role of temporal complexity and its interaction with multiple pitch engagement. Thus, we investigated the sustained effect of auditory entrainment and the interaction between temporal complexity and pitch on predefined sequential tapping with tapping sequences predefined before a synchronization-timekeeping task. Temporal complexity was manipulated by increasing the number of non-integer ratios in temporal rhythm. The rhythm sequences were presented with either multiple pitches or a single pitch. We found a reduction in mean asynchronies and ratio error in three rhythms with non-integer ratios, while inter-response interval error was reduced in the integer rhythm and the rhythm with one repetitive integer ratio and one non-integer ratio. Ratio error remanence was less in rhythms with two non-integer ratios. We found no significant difference between the two pitch types. There was a sustained entrainment effect of sequential tapping that varied with differing temporal complexity, and pitch information was not essential for auditory entrainment. These findings provide support for possible interventions aimed at motor learning.

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