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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells accelerate angiogenesis in pregnant experimentally induced deep venous thrombosis rat model via up-regulation of pro-angiogenic secretogranin II.

The present study investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) facilitate angiogenesis and improve outcomes of pregnancy with obstetric deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and explored the underlying mechanism. A pregnant DVT rat model was established using a "stenosis" method on the lower segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The extent of vascularization in thrombosed IVC was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the effect of BMMSCs on DVT pregnancy outcomes was evaluated. We also characterized the effect of BMMSC-derived conditioned medium (BM-CM) on the impaired human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Thereafter, transcriptome sequencing was employed to identify the differentially expressed genes in thrombosed IVC tissues of DVT and DVT plus BMMSCs (thrice) groups. Lastly, the candidate gene's role in the promotion of angiogenesis was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The DVT model was successfully established using IVC stenosis. The injection of three consecutive BMMSC doses into pregnant SD rats with DVT was demonstrated to be the most effective treatment, which significantly reduced the length and weight of the thrombus, induced the highest level of angiogenesis, and ameliorated the embryo absorption rate. In vitro, BM-CM efficiently increased the abilities of impaired endothelial cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, and form vessel-like tubes, while inhibiting their apoptosis. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that BMMSCs induced a prominent upregulation of a variety of pro-angiogenic genes, including secretogranin II (SCG2). When SCG2 expression was knocked down by lentivirus, the BMMSCs' and BM-CM-induced pro-angiogenic effects on pregnant DVT rats and HUVECs were markedly attenuated. In conclusion, the study results suggest that BMMSCs enhance angiogenesis via up-regulation of SCG2, providing an effective alternative regenerative agent and novel target for the therapy of obstetric DVT.

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