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Top Ten Differentials to Mull Over for Head and Neck Myoepithelial Neoplasms.

BACKGROUND: Myoepithelial neoplasms of the salivary gland are benign or malignant neoplasms composed exclusively of neoplastic myoepithelial cells. These tumors, including the benign myoepithelioma and the malignant counterpart myoepithelial carcinoma, exhibit a wide range of cytomorphologic features and architectural patterns.

METHODS: Review.

RESULTS: Myoepithelial cells can be epithelial, plasmacytoid, clear cell, spindle cell, and/or oncocytic cell, arranging as trabeculae, solid sheets, nests, cords, and/or single cells. A stromal component is commonly but not universally present, Therefore, their differential diagnoses are quite broad, including salivary gland neoplasms especially those with a myoepithelial component, plasmacytoma, melanoma, and various mesenchymal tumors.

CONCLUSION: In this review, we summarize the characteristic histologic features, useful immunohistochemical panel, and common molecular alterations of myoepithelial tumors and their top differential diagnoses. A logical stepwise algorithmic approach and an immunohistochemical panel to include multiple myoepithelial markers are essential to establish the correct diagnosis.

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